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Full text of "The Fate Of Man In The Modern World"

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94                      THE FATE OF MAN

character and lost the idealism it had in the last
century. But modern Nationalism is still more
demagogical: it bears the unmistakable imprint
of spiritual plebeianism. For that matter, so
does our epoch, itself. Nationalism takes unto
itself the symbolism of race, and it is possible to
have a popular revolutionary movement under
this flag, instead of that of class. What is
racialism ?

In Germany racialism has taken the form of a
collective religious insanity.    The revolution in
Germany took place under the sign of nation and
race, just as in Russia under that of social class.
But it is unwise to take such symbolism too
seriously in the case of mass movements.    The
symbolism is a relative factor, and processes
which are very similar may adopt quite different
symbols.   Mass movements always demand a
unifying   and   strength-giving   symbol,   which
always becomes the test of orthodoxy.   All who
do not accept the symbol are accursed and cast
out as heretics.   And in our day the categories
of heresy and orthodoxy  have become very
important social factors.   It may be noted in
passing that orthodoxy has always been a social
phenomenon, always determined by the social
collective.   Heresy is departure from the con-
science of the social collective, and in our day
the distinction between orthodoxy and heresy, as